A LANDSCAPE BIOGRAPHY OF THE WATAMPONE CITY

Authors

  • M. Irfan Mahmud Regional Agency for Archaeological Research in South Sulawesi Province
  • Nur Ihsan Djindar Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Cultural Science, Hasanuddin University
  • Fardi Ali Syahdar Ikatan Ahli Arkeologi Indonesia, Komda Sulawesi, Maluku, dan Papua
  • Nasihin Departement of History, Faculty of Cultural Science, Hasanuddin University
  • Budianto Hakim Regional Agency for Archaeological Research in South Sulawesi Province
  • Syahruddin Mansyur Regional Agency for Archaeological Research in South Sulawesi Province
  • Andi Muhammad Saiful Regional Agency for Archaeological Research in South Sulawesi Province
  • Ade Sahroni Regional Agency for Archaeological Research in South Sulawesi Province
DOI     10.24832/wln.v18i2.437

Keywords:

Bone, biography, landscape, historical layers, feature

Abstract

Watampone merupakan situs pusat Kerajaan Bone yang memiliki biografi lanskap dinamis, dari unit unit kampung kecil tradisional (abad ke-14 M) hingga mencapai bentuk kota kolonial pada awal abad ke-20. Dalam periode yang panjang dan dinamis, narasi perkembangan kota Watampone sudah sepantasnya dikaji tidak saja dalam bingkai simpul-simpul peristiwa besar atau historiografi arusutama, tetapi juga menyertakan narasi memori warga kota. Masalah penelitian ini berfokus bagaimana biografi lanskap Kota Watampone? Tujuannya ialah merekonstruksi perkembangan lanskap kota Watampone secara diakronis berdasarkan ketersediaan data (penanda) arkeologis dan historis serta memori kolektif warga. Untuk itu, pendekatan biografi lanskap digunakan dengan metode melalui tahapan: (1) survei untuk rekonstruksi sejarah dan arkeologi; (2) dokumentasi ingatan kolektif dengan wawancara dan FGD; dan (3) Interpretasi narasi biografi lanskap. Hasil penelitian mengidentifikasi sembilan lapisan biografis sepanjang lima abad kisah Kota Watampone. Dari jumlah lapisan biografis tersebut, memori kolektif warga kota hanya terkait Bola Soba sebagai ikon arsitektur serta 4 lapisan biografi peradaban terkait legacy tokoh, yaitu Kawerang (situs Manurunge), Macege, serta Tanah Bangkala dan Taman Arung Palakka (periode lanskap tanpa istana). Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ternyata tidak semua era pemerintahan menyimpan jejak fitur pada lanskap sebagai ‘legacy’, sekaligus atribut kuat identitas eksistensi lapisan biografi kota.

 

 

From its smallest traditional units in 14th AD to its colonial morphology in 20th AD, Bone is one of the Buginese kingdom cities with interesting landscape biography. In a long and dynamic period, the narrative of the development of the city of Watampone should be examined, not only in the frame of major historiography, but also to include the residents' collective memory. This research is focused to study the landscape biography of Watampone City? The purpose is to reconstruct the urban landscape development of Watampone diachronically based on the archaeological and historical data and the collective memory of the residents. This study used landscape biographical approach, with these following stages: (1) surveys for historical and archaeological reconstruction; (2) documentation of collective memory by interview and focus group discussion; and (3) Interpretation of landscape biographical narratives. The results of the study identified nine biographical layers along the five centuries of Watampone City. Of those biographic layers, its citizen’s collective memory only recollects one architectural icon (Bola Soba), and four other sites that related to a historic figure (Kawerang, Macege, Tanah Bangkala, and Arung Palakka’s City Park). This research shows that not all of the government eras have traces of features in the landscape as 'legacy', as well as strong attributes of the existence of urban biographical layers.

References

Abdullah, Hamid. 1985. Manusia Bugis Makassar: Suatu Tinjauan Historis terhadap Pola Tingkah Laku dan Pandangan Hidup Manusia Bugis-Makassar. Jakarta: Inti Press.

Abidin, Andi Zainal. 1983. "The Emergence of Early Kingdoms in South Sulawesi; A Preliminary Remark on Governmental Contracts from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century." J Southeast Asian Studies 20 (4):455-491.

Ali, Andi Muhammad. 1984. Rupa’na Bone (Perang Bone 1905). Watampone: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Propinsi Sulawesi Selatan.

Andaya, Leonard Y. 2006. Warisan Arung Palakka: Sejarah Sulawesi Selatan Abad ke-17. Makassar: Ininnawa.

Andaya, Leonard Y. 1981. The Heritage of Arung Palakka: A History of South Sulawesi (Celebes) in the Seventeenth Century. Leiden: Springer-Science-Business Media. B.V.

Bakkers, J.A. 1866. Het Lenvorstandom Boni 1866. Leiden: Universitas Leiden.

Bloemers, Tom (J.H.F)., Henk Kars., Arnold van der Valk., and Mies Wijnen, eds. 2010. The Cultural Landscape & Heritage Paradox: Protection and Development of the Dutch Archaeological-Historical Landscape and its European Dimension. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Bulbeck, David & Ian Caldwell. 2000. The Land of Iron: The Historical Archaeology of Luwu and The Cenrana Valey. Hull: University of Hull, Centre for South-East Asian Studies.

Bulbeck, David dan Ian Caldwell. 2005. Tapak-Tapak Waktu. Makassar: Ininnawa.

Caldwell, Ian & Kathryn Wellen. 2017. Finding Cina: A New Paradigm for Early Bugis History. Bijragen Tot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde 173 (2017), p. 296-324.

Caldwell, Ian & Malcolm Lillie. 2004. Manuel Pinto’s Inland Sea: UsingPalaeoenvironmental Techniques to Assess Historical Evidence from South Sulawesi. Modern Quaternary Studies of Southeast Asia 18 (2004), p. 259-272.

Hafid, Muh. Yunus. 1992/1993. Kerajaan Luwu (Menurut Catatan D.F. van Braam Morries). Ujungpandang: Balai Kajian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, Dirjenbud Departeman Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Hupperetz, Wim. 2015. "The Cultural Biography of a Street; Memory, Cultural Heritage and Historical Notion of the Visserstraat in Breda, the Netherlands (1200-2000)." In Landscape Biographies: Geographical, Historical and Archaeological Perspectives on the Production and Transmission of Landscapes, edited by J. Kolen, J. Renes, R. Hermans and H. Renes, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. p. 309—319.

Huzain, Muhammad., Hadarah Rajab., & Ismail Suardi Wekke. 2016. Sipakatau: Konsepsi Etika Masyakat Bugis. Edisi1. Cetakan I. Yogyakarta: Deepublish.

Jong, John de. 2015. "A Kaleidoscopic Biography of an Ordinary Landscape; Analysis of the Development of the Neighbourhood Buiten Wittevrouwen (Utrecht – the Netherlands)." In Landscape Biographies: Geographical, Historical and Archaeological Perspectives on the Production and Transmission of Landscapes, edited by J. Kolen, J. Renes, R. Hermans and H. Renes, 283-308. Amsterdam University Press.

Karro, Krista., Marika Magi., and Hannes Palang. 2014. "Studying Past Landscapes: Lived, Reconstructed and Animated." Living Reviews in Landscape Research 8 (1). doi: 10.12942/lrlr-2014-1.

Kolen, J., & J. Renes. 2015. "Landscape Biographies: Key Issues." In Landscape Biographies: Geographical, Historical and Archaeological Perspectives on the Production and Transmission of Landscapes, edited by J. Kolen, J. Renes, R. Hermans and H. Renes. Amsterdam University Press.

Kolen, J., J. Renes., R. Hermans., and H. Renes. 2015. Landscape Biographies: Geographical, Historical and Archaeological Perspectives on the Production and Transmission of Landscapes: Amsterdam University Press.

Lontaraq Akkarungeng Bone. T.th. Makassar: Koleksi Laboratorium Naskah, Fakultas Sastra Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar.

Lucardie,W.J. 1912. Oost-Indische Krijgsgeschiedenis, De Expeditie naar Zuid-Celebes, Juli 1905. Breda, De Koninklijke Militaire Academie.

Mahmud, M. Irfan. 1998. “Konsep Monarki Konstitusional Kerajaan Luwu”, Aspek-Aspek Arkeologi Indonesia, No. 22. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Mahmud, M. Irfan. 2003. Kota Kuna Palopo: Dimensi Fisik, Sosial, dan Kosmologi. Cet. 1. Makassar: Masagena Press.

Mahmud, M. Irfan. 2014. “Peradaban Masa Sejarah Situs Ereke, Buton Utara, Sulawesi Tenggara”, dalam Jurnal Penelitian Arkeologi PAPUA, Vol. 6, Edisi No. 1, Juni – 2014, hal. 69-84.

Mahmud, M. Irfan, Budianto Hakim, Nasihin, Fardi A.R, Nur-Ikhsan, Syahruddin Mansyur, Muh. Syaiful. 2019. Laporan Penelitian Arkeologi: Lanskap Ibukota Kerajaan Bone, Pendekatan Biografi Lankap. Makassar: Balai Arkeologi Sulawesi Selatan, (Tidak terbit)

Macknight, Campbell, Mukhlis Paeni and Muhlis Hadrawi (Translated and edited). 2020. The Bugis Chronicle of Bone. Camberra: Australian University Press.

Palang, Hannes., Theo Spek., and Marie Stenseke. 2011. "Digging in the past: New conceptual models in landscape history and their relevance in peri-urban landscapes." Landscape and Urban Planning 100 (4):344-346. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.01.012.

Riesto, Svava. 2015. "A Biography for an Emerging Urban District; Discovering Open Spaces in the Former Carlsberg Breweries, Copenhagen." In Landscape Biographies: Geographical, Historical and Archaeological Perspectives on the Production and Transmission of Landscapes, edited by J. Kolen, J. Renes, R. Hermans and H. Renes, 377-401. Amsterdam University Press.

Roymans, Nico., Fokke Gerritsen., Cor Van der Heijden., Koos Bosma., and Jan Kolen. 2009. "Landscape Biography as Research Strategy: The Case of the South Netherlands Project." Landscape Research 34 (3):337-359. doi: 10.1080/01426390802381185.

Published

2020-11-30

How to Cite

Irfan Mahmud, M., Djindar, N. I., Ali Syahdar, F., Nasihin, Hakim, B., Mansyur, S., Saiful, A. M., & Sahroni, A. (2020). A LANDSCAPE BIOGRAPHY OF THE WATAMPONE CITY. WALENNAE: Jurnal Arkeologi Sulawesi Selatan Dan Tenggara, 18(2), 95-118. https://doi.org/10.24832/wln.v18i2.437

Issue

Section

Articles