INVESTIGATION OF THE EARLY TRACES OF PEPPER TRADING IN BANTEN AREA, WEST JAVA

Authors

  • Moh. Ali Fadillah Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University
DOI     10.24832/wln.v19i2.711

Keywords:

Banten, Sunda, Tarumanagara, Lada hitam

Abstract

Berbagai sumber sejarah menyebutkan bahwa Banten merupakan salah satu pelabuhan lada untuk pasar Asia dan Eropa pada abad ke-17. Namun pecahan keramik dari periode Tang dan Song-Yuan hasil penggalian di situs Banten Girang membuktikan bahwa aktivitas perdagangan telah dimulai sejak abad X. Permasalahannya, sejarah awal perkebunan lada belum diketahui dengan jelas, oleh karen itu diperlukan suatu kajian untuk mengetahui tentang perdagangan lada pra-Islam di Banten. Kami melakukan survei di pedalaman Banten yang diduga sebagai lahan perkebunan di masa lalu. Pengamatan lapangan telah menemukan kembali jejak lada yang terhubung ke pelabuhan di pantai utara dan barat. Berdasarkan keterkaitannya dengan peninggalan pra-Islam, lada diduga telah dibudidayakan sejak Milenium pertama Masehi seiring dengan masuknya pedagang India dan China melalui Selat Sunda. Hasil analisis kontekstual terhadap jejak arkeologi dan etnografi, telah memberi gagasan bahwa perdagangan lada telah menjadi penggerak utama perekonomian yang dikendalikan oleh kekuasaan politik pesisir utara Jawa yang mungkin telah dimulai pada masa Tarumanagara dan berkembang pada masa kerajaan Sunda-Banten.

 

Various historical sources state that Banten was one of the pepper ports for the Asian and European markets in the 17th century. Ceramic shards from the Tang and Song-Yuan periods at the Banten Girang site prove that trading activities have started since the 10th century. The problem is, the early history of pepper plantations is unknown, therefore a study is needed to gain knowledge about the pre-Islamic pepper trade in Banten. We conducted a survey in the interior of Banten suspected as plantation land in the past. Field observations have rediscovered traces of pepper connected to ports on the north and west coasts. Based on its association with pre-Islamic remains, pepper was supposed to have been cultivated since the first millennium AD along with the arrival of Indian traders through the Sunda Strait. The results of the contextual analysis on archaeological and ethnographic traces, propose the idea that the pepper trade has become the main driver of the economy controlled by the north coast polities of Java which may have started during the Tarumanagara period and developed during the Sundanese kingdom of Banten.

References

Adhyatman, S. (1996). “Manik-manik”, in C. Guillot, L. Nurhakim, S. Wibisono, Banten Sebelum Zama Islam, Kajian Arkeologi Di Banten Girang 932? – 1526 (1996), Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional, pp. 217-225.

Ambary, H. M. (1977). “A Preliminary Report of the Excavation on the Urban Sites in Banten (West Java).” Bulletin of the Research Centre of Archaeology of Indonesia 11.

Bellwood, P. (2017). First Islanders: Prehistory and Human Migration in Island Southeast Asia, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley Blackwell.

Berthe, L. (1965). Aînés et Cadets, l’alliance et la hiérarchie chez les Baduy (Java Occidental), L’Homme, Etudes sur la parente, Tome 5 (3-4), pp: 189-223. https://doi.org/10.3406/hom.1965.366748

Boomgaard, P. (2007). “From Riches to Rags? Rice Production and Trade in Asia, Particularly Indonesia, 1500–1950.” Pp. 185–99 in A History of Natural Resources in Asia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Boontharm, D. (2003). The Sultanate of Banten AD 1750-1808: A Social and Cultural History .London, Hull University.

Bosch, F. D. K. (1941). “Een Maleische Inscriptie in Het Buitenzorgsche.” B.K.I 100:49–53.

BPCB Team. 2020. Laporan Pengembangan Atribut Jalur Rempah Simpul Banten. Serang, Banten.

Braudel, F. (1960). “History and the Social Sciences: The Long Duration.” American Behavioural Scientist 3:3–13.

Breugel, J. de R. van. (1856). “Bedenkingen over Den Staat van Bantam.” Bijdragen Lot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde (BKI) Nieuwe vol:110–69.

Bronson, B. (1977). “Exhange at the Upstream and Downstream Ends: Notes toward a Functional Model of the Coastal State in Southeast Asia.” Pp. 38–52 in Economic exchange and social interaction in Southeast Asia, edited by K. L.Hutterer. The University of Michigan.

Bulbeck, D. (2017). “Traditions of Jars as Mortuary Containers in the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago.” Pp. 141–59 in New Perspectives in Southeast Asian and Pacific Prehistory, The Archaeology of Sulawesi: A Strategic Island for Understanding Modern Human Colonization and interactions across our Region. Canberra: Australian National University.

Coedès, G. (1964). Les Etats Hindouisés d’Indochine et d’Indonésie. Paris: Editions Boccard.

Cortesao, C. (1944). The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires. London: Hakluyt Society.

Damais, LC. (1967). “Une Publication Récente Du Service Archéologique de l’Indonésie.” Befeo 53:685–94.

Djajadinigrat, H. (1983). Tinjauan Kritis Tentang Sajarah Banten, Sumbangan Bagi Pengenalan Sifat-Sifat Penulisan Jawa. Jakarta: Djambatan.

Due A, R. (1996). "Hewan", in C. Guillot, L. Nurhakim, S. Wibisono, Banten Sebelum Zama Islam, Kajian Arkeologi Di Banten Girang 932? – 1526 (1996), Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional, pp. 209-211.

Fadillah, M. A. 2001. “Mitos ‘Gunung Suci’ Di Pandeglang, Banten: Sebuah Kontemplasi Arkeologis.” Pp. 49–69 in Manusia dan Lingkungan, Keberagaman Budaya dalam Kajian Arkeologi, edited by Tony Djubiantono & Moh Ali Fadillah. Bandung: Ikatan Ahli Arkeologi Indonesia.

Fakhri. 2016. "Situs Rampi: Masa persebaran arca batu dan hubungannya dengan di wilayah situs terdekat", Walennae 14 (10):23-36.

Fuller, D. Q., Nicole N. B, Tom H, & Robin A. (2011). “Across the Indian Ocean: The Prehistoric Movement of Plants and Animals.” Antiquity 85:544–58.

Gilboa, A, & Dvory N. (1915). “On the Beginnings of South Asian Spice Trade with the Mediterranean Region: A Review.” Radiocarbon 57 (2):265–83. doi: DOI: 10.2458/azu_rc.57.18562.

Guillot, C. (1989). “Banten En 1678.” Archipel 37:119–51.

Guillot, C. (1991). “La Nécessaire Relecture de l’accord Luso-Soundanais de 1522.” Archipel 42:53–76.

Guillot, C. (1992). “Libre Entreprise Contre Economie Dirigee: Guerres Civiles a Banten, 1580-1609.” Archipel 43:57–72.

Guillot, C., Hasan M. A., & Jacques D. (1990). The Sultanat of Banten. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Guillot, C., Lukman N., and Sonny C. W. (1996). Banten Sebelum Zama Islam, Kajian Arkeologi Di Banten Girang 932? – 1526. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional.

Hall, K. R. (2014). “European Southeast Asia Encounters with Islamic Expansionism, circa 1500–1700: Comparative Case Studies of Banten, Ayutthaya, and Banjarmasin in the Wider Indian Ocean Context.” Journal of World History 25 (2-3):229–62.

Hao, C., Rui F., Milton C R., Le-he T., Hua-song W., Jian-feng Y., Zheng W. & Yu H. (2012). “Modeling the Potential Geographic Distribution of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum) in Asia Using GIS Tools.” Journal of Integrative Agriculture 11 (4):593–99.

Harkantiningsih, N. (2013). “Ceramics along the Spice Trade Route in the Indonesian Archipelago in the 16th-19th Century.” Forum Arkeologi 26 (1):29–37.

Hazeu, G. A. J. (1905). “Een Beschreven Koperen Plaat Uit de Lampongs.” TBG 48:1–12.

van Heekeren, H. R. (1956). “Note on a Proto-Historic Urn-Burial Site at Anjar, Java.” Anthropos 51(1/2):194–200.

Heine-Geldern, R. (1942). “Conceptions of State and Kingship in Southeast Asia.” The Far Eastern Quarterly 2:15–30.

Henley, D. (2015). “Ages of Commerce in Southeast Asian History.” Verhandelingen van Het Koninklijk Instituut Voor Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde 300(Environment, Trade and Society in Southeast Asia A Longue Durée Perspective (Eds: David Henley and Henk Schulte Nordholt)):120–32.

Hirth, F dan W. W. Rockhill. (1911). CHAU JU-KUA: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelfth and thirteenth Centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi. St. Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences

Indraningsih, J. R. (1986). "Pemukiman Prasejarah di sepanjang daerah aliran Sungai Cibanten hilir: Sebuah kajian awal", Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi, V-IIa Aspek Sosial Budaya, Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional.

Juliadi, Sonny P. W., Bayu A., Pahlawan P. S. N., & Mimi L. (2015). Ragam Pusaka Budaya Banten. Kedua. Serang-Banten: Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Provinsi Banten dan Balai Pelestarian Cagar Budaya.

Kathirithamby-Wells, J. (1993). “Hulu-Hilir Unity and Conflict: Malay Statecraft in East Sumatra before the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Archipel 45:77–96. doi: https://doi.org/10.3406/arch.1993.2894.

Kennet R. H., (2010). “Multi-dimensional Networking: Fifteenth-Century Indian Ocean Maritim Diaspora in Southeast Asian Perspective, in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, JESHO 49 (4) January 2010: 454-481.

Kristofery, L., Murtilaksono, Kukuh, Dwi P. T. B. (2019)., “Simulasi Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan Terhadap Karakter Hidrlologi Daerah Aliran Sungai Ciliman”, Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan, 21 (2) Oktober 2019: 66-71 (69-70).

Kulke, H. (1989). “Epigraphical References to the City and the State in Early Indonesia.” in Panel on early Indonesian state formation during the Association for Asian Studies Meeting. Washington DC.

Lodewycksz, W. (1915). “D’eerste Boek: Historie van Indien Vaer Inne Verhaelt Is de Avontueren Die Hollandtsche Schepen Bejeghent Zijn.” Pp. 139–156 in De eerste schipvaart der Nederlanders naar Oost-Indie onder Cornelis de Houtman, 1595–1597, edited by G. P. Rouffaer G.P and J. Ijzerman. The Hague: Nijhoff for Linschoten-Vereeniging.

Lombard, D. (1970). “Pour Une Histoire Des Villes Du Sud-Est Asiatique.” Annales ESC 4:842–56.

Lombard, D. (1996). Nusa Jawa Silang Budaya, Jaringan Asia. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

McKinnon, E. E., Hasan D., & Soeroso MP. (1994). “Tarumanagara? A Note on Discoveries at Batujaya and Cibuaya, West Java.” in the 15th Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Congress. Chiang Mai, 5-12 January 1994.

Michrob, H. (1987). “A Hypothetical Reconstruction of the Islamic City of Banten.” University of Pennsylvania, Philladelphia.

Moens, J. L. (1937). “Crlvijaya, Yava En Kataha.” BKI 77:317–486.

Moens, J. L. (1940). “Was Purnavarman van Taruma een Saura?” Tijdschrift Voor Indische Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde 80:78–109.

Montana, S. (1988). “Situasi Di Banten Pada Masa Pra-Geger Cilegon”, Proceedings Seminar Geger Cilegon 1888.” Pp. 13–28 in Proceedings Seminar Geger Cilegon 1888, Peranan Pejuang Banten Melawan Penjajah Belanda, edited by Hasan Muarif Ambary & Halwany Michrob. Serang, Banten.

Mundardjito, Hasan M. A., & Hasan D. (1978). “Laporan Penelitian Arkeologi Banten 1976.” Berita Penelitian Arkeologi 18.

Noorduyn, J., & H. T. Verstappen. (1972). “Purnavarman’s River-Works near Tugu.” Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde 128 (1/3):298–307.

Novamalaisari, Elyya & Hermawan, Z. (2014). Penyusunan Profil Ekosistem Pegunungan Akarsari Dalam Rangka Konservasi dan Rehabilitasi Kerusakan Sumberdaya Alam Propinsi Banten, Serang: Badan Lingkungan Hidup Daerah, Provinsi Banten, 2014: pp. XXVII-XXVIII.

Nurhakim, Lukman, and Moh Ali Fadillah. 1990. “Lada, Politik Ekonomi Banten Di Lampung.” Pp. 258–73 in Proceedings Analisis Hasil Penelitian Arkeologi II Bali, Kajian Agrikultur Berdasarkan Data Arkeologi. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional.

Pelliot, P. (1904). “Deux Itinéraires de Chine En Inde à La Fin Du VIIIe Siècle.” BEFEO 4:130–413.

Pigeaud, Th. G. Th., and H. J. De Graaf. (1976). Islamic States in Java 1500-1700, A Summary Bibliography and Index. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Polanyi, Karl. (1957). “Ports of Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean.” in Trade and Market in the Early Empires, edited by and H. W. P. Polanyi, K., CM. Arenburg. New York: McMillan.

Qomaruzzaman-Anees, B. (2020). “Bercermin Pada Sejarah Banten Tempo Dulu.” Pp. 47–56 in Dua Dasawarsa Pembentukan Provinsi Banten, edited by Firman Hadiansyah. Serang-Banten: Dinas Perpustakaan dan Kearsipan Provinsi Banten & Untirta Press.

Rantoandro, G. (1995). “Lieux de Rencontre Particuliers de l’ancien Banten: Les Pabean.” Archipel 50:25–39.

Reid, A. (1988). Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1450–1680. Vol. 2. New Haven - London: Yale University Press.

Reid, A. (1990). “An ‘Age of Commerce’ in Southeast Asian History.” Modern Asian Studies 24 (1):1–30.

Reid, A. (1995). "Humans and Forests in Pre–colonial Southeast Asia." Environment and History 1, no. 1 (February 1995): 93–110. http://www.environmentandsociety.org/node/2823.

Reid, Anthony. 2011. Asia Tenggara dalam Kurun Niaga 1450-1680: Jaringan Perdagangan Global Asia Tenggara, II, Jakarta, Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia Jakarta, 2011, transl. from Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1450-1680 (1993).

Saptono, N. (2013). “Permukiman Kuno Di Kawasan Way Sekampung, Lampung Pada Masa Sriwijaya.” Amerta, Jurnal Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Arkeologi 31 (2):81–150.

Schrieke, B. (1960). Indonesian Sociological Studies (I). The Hague: W. van Hoeve.

So, Billy K.L. (1998). “Dissolving Hegemony or Changing Trade Pattern? Images of Srivijaya in the Chinese Sources of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries,in Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 29 (2): 295-308 (14 pages), Published By: Cambridge University Press) .

Soegondho, S. (1985). “The Pottery from Gilimanuk, Bali.” Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 6:46–53.

Smith, M. L. (1999). ‘Indianization’, from the Indian Point of View: Trade and Cultural Contacts with Southeast Asia in the Early first Millenium C.E, in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 42, No. 1 (1999), pp. 1- 26.

Sukendar, H., Ratna I. P., & Rokhus D. A. (1982). “Laporan Survei Pandeglang Dan Ekskavasi Anyar, Jawa Barat 1979.” Berita Penelitian Arkeologi 28.

Ueda, K., Sonny C. S. W., Naniek H., & Chen S. L. (2016). “Paths to Power in the Early Stage of Colonialism: An Archaeological Study of the Sultanate of Banten, Java, Indonesia, the Seventeenth to Early Nineteenth Century.” Asian Perspectives 55(1):1–32. doi: 10.1353/asi.2016.0009.

Untoro, H. O. (1995). Kapitalisme Pribumi Awal Kesultanan Banten 1522-1681 Kajian Arkeologi Ekonomi. Depok: FIB-UI.

VOC Archives 27. Reports on the pepper plantation in the highlands of Banten 1780-1781,179

VOC Archives 28. Instructions and Daghregister on the pepper plantation 1803-1804.

VOC Archives 29. Memory on the pepper plantation in the highlands of Banten 1805-1807.

Walker, M.J. et S. S. (1977). “Romano-Indian rouletted pottery in Indonesia”, Mankind, 1 1, p. 39-45.

Wessing, Robert. 2011. “Tarumanagara: What’s in a Name?” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 42 (2):325–337.

Wheatley, P. (1975). “Satyanrta in Suvarnadvipa: From Reciprocity to Redistribution in Ancient Southeast Asia”, in: J.A. Sabloff and C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky (eds), Ancient Civilization and Trade, pp. 227-38. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Wheatley, P. (1983). Nagara and Commandery: Origins of the Southeast Asian Urban Traditions. Chicago: University of Chicago, Department of Geography.

Wibisono, S., Niniek H., Arfian, S.. (2016). "Laporan Survey dan Ekskavasi Pandeglang", Jakarta: Puslit Arkenas (unpublished report).

Wisseman-Christie, J. (1995). “State Formation in Early Maritime Southeast Asia: A Consideration of the Theories and the Data.” Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde 151 (2):235–88.

Published

2021-11-25

How to Cite

Fadillah, M. A. (2021). INVESTIGATION OF THE EARLY TRACES OF PEPPER TRADING IN BANTEN AREA, WEST JAVA. WALENNAE: Jurnal Arkeologi Sulawesi Selatan Dan Tenggara, 19(2), 77–100. https://doi.org/10.24832/wln.v19i2.711

Issue

Section

Articles